In males the term neutering usually mean the castration, which involves surgical removal of both testicles, while in females, usually meant the ovariohysterectomy, which involves surgical removal of the entire reproductive system (uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries).
There are other methods of surgical sterilization, such as resection only ovarian or tubal ligation, but in most cases no advantage and are not suggested. Also, there is a temporary medical sterilization, which applies primarily to females, with the use of hormonal preparations (pills or injections), but serious risks and complications, especially the repeated use and are not recommended as routine methods.
The sterilizations have offered the greatest in modern Western societies, the problem of stray animals. A female cat or dog with their offspring and litters with them, may, within one year account for 50 to 200 other kittens or puppies that come to life.
The major advantages of neutering are:
- Longer life expectancy
- Better quality life in the area who live animal. Not suppressed by his sexual impulses can not satisfy.
- Correcting problem behavior such as stress or escape intense annoyance. Non-neutered cats, for example, spray-urinate in the house, while the female non-neutered cats, the period of oestrus bother with the evening, persistent meow - Call for mating.
- Avoiding serious pathologies such as pyometra (very common) and cancer of the breast is the most common malignant neoplasm of the female dog. The latter is usually prevented by neutering before the first or second period.
- Avoid interaction with other animals, especially strays, which can contaminate our animal, diseases, internal or external parasites.
- Neutered animals are more loyal to their owners and better devote themselves to their duties.
- The greatest advantage, however, is to avoid unwanted pregnancies resulting birth puppies and kittens which hardly adopted.
The major disadvantages are:
- Risks of complications from general anesthesia and surgery. But these are rare after neutering surgery is considered routine and therefore low risk.
- Obesity trend. By neutering often we decrease the metabolic rate. If the quality and quantity of food are changed accordingly and the animal does not have the required daily exercise, can take considerable burden sometimes with adverse health effects.